Municipalities are usually the competent authorities when siting wind turbines. The following steps and decisions can be distinguished:
- Designating areas for wind energy and establishing them in plans, such as spatial plans and land-use plans;
- Granting permits.
A Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) must be drawn up for wind energy plans. For project decisions (permits) an EIA report may have to be made, depending on the size of the wind farm (see the Environmental Assessment Decree, category D22.2.
Central government and provinces
In principle, the municipality has the authority to create a land-use plan, but there are exceptions:
- For wind farms with a generating capacity exceeding 100 MW a government structure plan is drawn up;
- For wind farms with a generating capacity between 5 and 100 MW the States-Provincial must establish a provincial integration plan.
An SEA must also be prepared for these plans.