This method entails using exposure data end available dose–effect relationships or relative risks in combination with incidence to calculate how many people will experience nuisance or are (or will become) ill, develop complaints or die prematurely.
This gives a picture of the magnitude of the actual health impacts in an area (neighbourhood, municipality or region/province).
This method can be used if sufficient information is available on the relationship between burden and impact. Such relationships are known for, among others, certain health impacts of air pollution, noise, odour and external safety. If the differences between alternatives are relatively large, in order to compare alternatives it may be worthwhile quantifying the actual health impacts.
The advantage of this method is that it sheds light on the magnitude of the health impacts, including when exposure is below threshold values. A disadvantage is that the health impacts (for example, of air pollution) can only be quantified when sufficient information is available. In addition, sometimes there are large uncertainties in the calculation of the magnitude of the health impacts.